The main stages of the Roman conquest in Hispania
- By the Ebro Treaty (226 BC), the Romans and Carthaginians divided the areas of influence in the Mediterranean.
- When the Carthaginians besieged Sagunto in 219 BC, this served as an excuse for the Romans to declare war on them, the so-called Second Punic War (218-206 BC). The victory of the Roman troops meant that the south and the Mediterranean coast become Rome dependencies by 205 BC.
- This is when the Romans divided Hispania into two territories: Citeror and Ulterior.
- Wars took place with the Lusitanians and the Celtiberians in different territories, but practically at the same time between 154-133 BC. They were caused by the continuous incursions of the Lusitanian peoples leading to the Roman people suffering great financial losses. Both battles were won by the Romans, with the murder of Viriathus (the Lusitanian leader) and the siege and conquest of Numancia (Celtiberian city).
- The Balearic Islands were conquered in 123 BC.
- From around the year 50 BC, only the Cantabrians and Asturians were independent from Rome, with the rest of the peninsula inhabitants being subjected by or voluntarily adhered with the Romans.
- The theatre of operations was divided into two:
- Asturias, León, Zamora and Galicia.
- Cantabria, north of Palencia and Burgos.
This was the context for the Cantabrian Wars to take place against the Roman emperor, Augustus. After 7 years of conflict, the Roman conquest was eventually completed and was effectively over in 19 BC, although there is evidence of subsequent minor rebellions.